Racial Equity
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity

Maintaining


Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2015

What does this measure?

The number of people incarcerated in local jails by race/ethnicity, expressed as a rate per 10,000 residents of that race/ethnicity.

Why is this important?

Incarceration serves to remove offenders from a community, but also creates hardships on families, including the loss of an income or a caregiver, in addition to long-term effects on mental health for all involved. After incarceration, people often encounter challenges in obtaining meaningful employment, leading to reductions in long-term productivity, recidivism and widespread effects on a community's social, health and educational systems. Disparities in this rate by race or ethnicity can highlight structural differences in how communities are affected and treated by the public safety and criminal justice system.

How does our county compare?

In 2015, the latest year for which data is available, African Americans in Lancaster were incarcerated at a rate of 141 persons per 10,000 residents more than seven and a half times of the 18 per 10,000 rate of white residents. Latinos, at 63 per 10,000 residents, were incarcerated at nearly three and a half times the rate of white residents. This is greater than the overall rates for Pennsylvania, where African Americans are incarcerated at more than five and a half times the rate of whites and Latinos at 2.7 times the rate of whites.

While such disparities are repeated in all surrounding counties, all of them have lesser disparities than Lancaster, with the exception of Chester, where at 176 per 10,000 residents for African Americans and 15 per 10,000 for whites, African American residents are incarcerated at almost eleven and a half times the rate of white residents.

Lebanon and York have higher incarceration rates for all races than nearby counties, including Lancaster. In Lebanon, 321 African Americans, 74 Latinos and 50 whites per 10,000 are incarcerated, and in York, 346 African Americans, 143 Latinos and 57 whites per 10,000 are incarcerated

Why do these disparities exist?

Disparities in incarceration are the result of racialized stereotypes, policies and practices and community conditions. Stereotypes that portray Black and Latino people, especially males, as inherently dangerous, criminal, and violent lay the foundation for police surveillance and disparate and harsher treatment by the criminal justice system. Communities of color are more likely to be under surveillance and policies such as stop and frisk perpetuate increased police contact. Punitive drug laws have had disproportionate impact on Black and Latino communities. Even though Blacks and whites have similar rates of drug use, Black people are more likely to be arrested and experience harsher sentences. In general, whites experience less harsh sentences when convicted of similar crimes as Black and Latinos. Given economic disparities, people of color are less likely to experience pre-trial release after arrest. The concentration of Black and Latino communities in highly segregated communities with limited economic opportunities and ineffective schools may also foster crime involvement.

Notes about the data

Rates are for people in local jails at the county level and in prisons and county jails at the state level. Rates for subgroups at the state level only include the county jail population, not state prisons. National data reported here is missing five states that did not report.

Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2015
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatinoNative AmericanWhite
Pennsylvania8.3138.668.351.724.9
Lancaster County20.0141.063.318.318.5
Dauphin County3.5168.074.851.531.6
York County148.1346.0142.717.756.9
Lebanon County7.3320.774.390.149.6
Cumberland County5.8107.315.338.524.0
Berks County9.1142.670.018.621.7
Chester County1.4176.29.118.415.4

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Rates are per 10,000 residents




Number of Incarcerated People by Race/Ethnicity, 2015
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatinoNative AmericanWhite
Pennsylvania25613,3943,7678016,395
Lancaster County171942181521
Dauphin County35501082389
York County6961027611,402
Lebanon County166771357
Cumberland County47891339
Berks County41883621436
Chester County3391221423

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Figures are for the total jail population. The total jail population is the average daily population.




INDICATORS
Prekindergarten Participation
Student Performance on Grade 3 English
Student Performance on Grade 3 Math
Student Performance on Grade 8 English
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math
Student Performance in Grade 11 English
Student Performance in Grade 11 Math
Per-Student Spending
Students Receiving Special Education Services
Rate of Foster Care Admissions
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Disengaged Youth
Plans of High School Graduates
Enrollment in Local Colleges
College Graduation Rates
Brain Drain/Gain
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Average Charitable Giving
Voter Registration Rate
Voter Participation Rate
Age of Housing Stock
Violent Crime Rate
Incarceration Rate
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population Density
Air Quality
Water Use
Waterways Impaired by Pollution
Population by Age
Change in Population by Age and Gender
Population by Race/Ethnicity
People with Disabilities
Foreign-Born Population
Language Diversity
Change in Employment by Sector
Sector Share of Total Jobs
Workers by Occupation
Change in Labor Force
People Entering/Leaving County/Region for Work
Average Salary by Sector
Change in Average Salary Since 2000
Female to Male Earnings Ratio
Employer Size
Change in Number of Businesses by Sector
Change in Total Agricultural Sales
Spending for Local Government
Spending for School Districts
Children Living in Poverty
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Veterans Living in Poverty
Working Poor
Median Household Income by Household Type
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Living Wage
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch
Median Home Value
Occupied Housing Units
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Median Rent
Cost of Renting
Households Without Vehicles
Means of Transportation to Work, by Race/Ethnicity
People Without Health Insurance
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity
Health Status
Prevalence of Mental Illness
Adults Who are Overweight or Obese
Mortality Rates
Fatal Drug Overdoses
Cancer Incidence
Households With Internet Access
High-Tech Jobs
STEM Graduates
Science and Engineering Research and Development
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population by Race/Ethnicity
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity


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