Racial Equity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity

Decreasing


Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2014-18

What does this measure?

The proportion of households broken out by race and ethnicity that participate in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps).

Why is this important?

The SNAP program provides government funding for low-income people to buy food. It therefore indicates how many people in a region cannot support themselves at a basic level. Differences among racial and ethnic groups may reflect the economic health of these groups, as well as potential disparities in access to economic opportunity.

How does our county compare?

In 2014-18, Lancaster County demonstrated disparities in the race and ethnicity of residents receiving SNAP benefits. While 29% of African American residents and 31% of Hispanic residents utilized SNAP benefits, only 7% of white residents received SNAP. These levels are slightly below state levels, but above national levels, except for whites (10% nationally, vs. 7% in Lancaster County).

The City of Lancaster had higher rates for every group during this period: 36% of African Americans, 43% of Hispanics and 22% of whites received SNAP benefits.

Among surrounding counties over the same period, Chester and Cumberland had lower SNAP utilization rates than Lancaster for all groups, while Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon and York generally had higher rates.

Why do these disparities exist?

Research connects lower incomes and higher poverty rates among people of color to historic and current policies and practices that disadvantaged people of color. These policies and systems, ranging from inequitable access to housing to employment discrimination to education systems that fail to equitably serve all populations, have prevented people of color from fully participating in our economy, locking them out of economic opportunity. This has increased the need for some groups to access programs to support basic needs such as SNAP.

Notes about the data

The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

Studies have found that national survey estimates (including the ACS) of enrollment in public benefit programs tend to underestimate the true rate due to underreporting by participants, when compared with state-level administrative data. Underreporting can occur for a variety of reasons, including the social stigma of program participation and participants' confusion about the source of the services they receive. For these reasons, the estimates reported above should be considered a lower bound of the true estimate.

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2014-18
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Pennsylvania10%33%35%10%
Lancaster County11%*29%31%7%
Lancaster City21%***36%43%22%
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0%***42%***0%***3%***
Akron boroughN/A***N/A***6%***8%**
Columbia borough19%***41%**60%**20%
Denver township0%***0%***0%***9%**
East Petersburg borough0%***0%***0%***0%***
Elizabethtown borough0%***83%***20%***7%*
Ephrata borough0%***100%***11%***14%*
Lititz borough64%***0%***12%***5%**
Manheim boroughN/A***0%***100%***3%***
Marietta boroughN/A***56%***100%***13%**
Millersville borough0%***45%***0%***6%***
Mount Joy boroughN/A***0%***30%***7%**
Mountville borough0%***0%***28%***14%***
New Holland borough0%***0%***0%***11%**
Quarryville borough0%***76%***14%***13%**
Strasburg borough0%***N/A***53%***8%***
Terre Hill boroughN/A***N/A***0%***3%***
Lancaster County Townships
Bart townshipN/A***0%***0%***1%***
Brecknock township0%***N/A***0%***6%***
Caernarvon townshipN/A***N/A***0%***5%***
Clay township0%***0%***0%***6%**
Colerain townshipN/A***0%***N/A***1%***
Conestoga townshipN/A***N/A***0%***7%***
Conoy townshipN/A***N/A***55%***4%***
Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***4%***
Earl township0%***100%***33%***3%***
East Cocalico township0%***0%***26%***5%***
East Donegal township0%***0%***0%***4%***
East Drumore townshipN/A***0%***N/A***7%***
East Earl township0%***0%***100%***3%***
East Hempfield township20%***7%***10%***4%**
East Lampeter township6%***29%***22%***6%**
Eden townshipN/A***0%***25%***2%***
Elizabeth township0%***N/A***100%***3%***
Ephrata township0%***0%***32%***6%**
Fulton townshipN/A***0%***33%***10%**
Lancaster township10%***37%***27%***7%**
Leacock township0%***0%***0%***4%***
Little Britain townshipN/A***0%***N/A***2%***
Manheim township16%***10%***15%***4%*
Manor township0%***8%***19%***8%**
Martic townshipN/A***N/A***0%***3%***
Mount Joy township0%***0%***25%***2%***
Paradise townshipN/A***0%***59%***9%***
Penn township0%***0%***0%***2%***
Pequea township0%***N/A***0%***5%***
Providence township0%***N/A***78%***12%**
Rapho township0%***0%***0%***5%**
Sadsbury townshipN/A***0%***0%***4%***
Salisbury township0%***55%***0%***7%**
Strasburg townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***3%***
Upper Leacock township18%***0%***28%***6%**
Warwick township0%***0%***16%***4%**
West Cocalico townshipN/A***N/A***0%***3%***
West Donegal townshipN/A***0%***0%***1%***
West Earl township0%***0%***22%***3%***
West Hempfield township0%***0%***36%***9%*
West Lampeter township0%***0%***0%***3%**
Berks County8%***30%45%10%
Chester County3%**19%12%4%
Cumberland County6%**24%*28%*6%
Dauphin County12%*29%38%8%
Lebanon County15%***28%*50%9%
York County14%**33%38%9%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number of Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity, 2014-18
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Pennsylvania13,928167,06988,931430,300
Lancaster County375*2,0515,15413,023
Lancaster City128***1,1753,2223,210
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0***14***0***23***
Akron borough0***0***10***131**
Columbia borough8***185**234**743
Denver township0***0***0***123**
East Petersburg borough0***0***0***0***
Elizabethtown borough0***119***21***283*
Ephrata borough0***49***38***769*
Lititz borough16***0***11***183**
Manheim borough0***0***41***46***
Marietta borough0***14***18***140**
Millersville borough0***27***0***158***
Mount Joy borough0***0***42***242**
Mountville borough0***0***12***143***
New Holland borough0***0***0***224**
Quarryville borough0***13***10***108**
Strasburg borough0***0***41***87***
Terre Hill borough0***0***0***14***
Lancaster County Townships
Bart township0***0***0***14***
Brecknock township0***0***0***145***
Caernarvon township0***0***0***75***
Clay township0***0***0***142**
Colerain township0***0***0***11***
Conestoga township0***0***0***111***
Conoy township0***0***26***55***
Drumore township0***0***0***29***
Earl township0***20***20***65***
East Cocalico township0***0***38***188***
East Donegal township0***0***0***100***
East Drumore township0***0***0***91***
East Earl township0***0***16***63***
East Hempfield township52***25***59***336**
East Lampeter township18***121***121***337**
Eden township0***0***5***14***
Elizabeth township0***0***8***34***
Ephrata township0***0***39***234**
Fulton township0***0***12***93**
Lancaster township26***217***384***366**
Leacock township0***0***0***64***
Little Britain township0***0***0***33***
Manheim township107***38***189***522*
Manor township0***22***89***589**
Martic township0***0***0***51***
Mount Joy township0***0***22***62***
Paradise township0***0***24***147***
Penn township0***0***0***81***
Pequea township0***0***0***85***
Providence township0***0***147***327**
Rapho township0***0***0***252**
Sadsbury township0***0***0***34***
Salisbury township0***12***0***223**
Strasburg township0***0***0***37***
Upper Leacock township20***0***54***172**
Warwick township0***0***38***272**
West Cocalico township0***0***0***85***
West Donegal township0***0***0***49***
West Earl township0***0***24***75***
West Hempfield township0***0***137***532*
West Lampeter township0***0***0***170**
Berks County127***2,01510,45713,996
Chester County235**1,9091,0645,986
Cumberland County200**765*638*5,627
Dauphin County416*5,6332,8366,546
Lebanon County70***326*2,5314,150
York County263**2,8763,35514,796

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




INDICATORS
Prekindergarten Participation
Student Performance on Grade 3 English
Student Performance on Grade 3 Math
Student Performance on Grade 8 English
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math
Student Performance in Grade 11 English
Student Performance in Grade 11 Math
Per-Student Spending
Students Receiving Special Education Services
Rate of Foster Care Admissions
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Disengaged Youth
Plans of High School Graduates
Enrollment in Local Colleges
College Graduation Rates
Brain Drain/Gain
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Average Charitable Giving
Voter Registration Rate
Voter Participation Rate
Age of Housing Stock
Violent Crime Rate
Incarceration Rate
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population Density
Air Quality
Water Use
Waterways Impaired by Pollution
Population by Age
Change in Population by Age and Gender
Population by Race/Ethnicity
People with Disabilities
Foreign-Born Population
Language Diversity
Change in Employment by Sector
Sector Share of Total Jobs
Workers by Occupation
Change in Labor Force
People Entering/Leaving County/Region for Work
Average Salary by Sector
Change in Average Salary Since 2000
Female to Male Earnings Ratio
Employer Size
Change in Number of Businesses by Sector
Change in Total Agricultural Sales
Spending for Local Government
Spending for School Districts
Children Living in Poverty
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Veterans Living in Poverty
Working Poor
Median Household Income by Household Type
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Living Wage
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch
Median Home Value
Occupied Housing Units
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Median Rent
Cost of Renting
Households Without Vehicles
Means of Transportation to Work, by Race/Ethnicity
People Without Health Insurance
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity
Health Status
Prevalence of Mental Illness
Adults Who are Overweight or Obese
Mortality Rates
Fatal Drug Overdoses
Cancer Incidence
Households With Internet Access
High-Tech Jobs
STEM Graduates
Science and Engineering Research and Development
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population by Race/Ethnicity
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity


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