Financial Security
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity

Decreasing


Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2014-18

What does this measure?

The unemployment rate for racial and ethnic groups in a geographic area. Unemployed individuals are those without jobs who are able, available and seeking work; the rate presents them as a share of the total labor force.

Why is this important?

Unemployment rates are a relatively timely indicator of current local economic conditions, particularly recent changes in the employment landscape that reflect the overall health of the economy.

How does our county compare?

In 2014-18, 9.5% of African American and 8.2% of Hispanic residents of Lancaster County were unemployed, compared to 3.6% of white residents. This is in line with disparities observed at the statewide and national levels, although Pennsylvania's unemployment rates for non-white workers are higher than those of the U.S, generally.

Unemployment rates for all groups except Asians were higher in the City of Lancaster, where 9.4% of Hispanic residents and 12.6% of African American residents were unemployed, compared to 6% of white residents.

Since 2000, the county's unemployment rate declined 2 percentage points among African American workers. The rate was essentially flat among Hispanic and unemployment rose by about 1 percentage point for white residents.

Why do these disparities exist?

While traditional explanations for employment rate disparities focus on education and training gaps, whites tend to be employed at higher rates than Blacks and other people of color at every education level (high school, some college, bachelor's degree, etc.). This has led many researchers to focus on labor market discrimination as a primary cause of higher unemployment among people of color. However, it is also true that education levels are generally lower for people of color, suggesting that the education system's failure to equitably serve people of color is also a contributing factor.

Notes about the data

The multi-year figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census.

Data on unemployment by race and ethnicity is only available from the American Community Survey, and it is somewhat different from the total population unemployment data produced by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics using responses to the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. Two different survey methodologies are used (ACS responses are collected by mail, phone and in person; CPS uses phone and in-person interviews), CPS questions on employment are more detailed, and CPS requires that someone be "actively" searching for work (interviewing, calling contacts) in order to qualify as unemployed. In addition, the ACS estimates used here cover a 5-year period, compared to an annual average of monthly estimates presented in the general unemployment indicator. In 2009, the annual unemployment estimates for the nation from the two surveys varied, with ACS at 9.9% and CPS at 9.3%. Data for this indicator are expected to be released in the fourth quarter.

Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2014-18
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Pennsylvania5.2%12.5%10.5%4.8%
Lancaster County2.7%***9.5%*8.2%3.6%
Lancaster City0.3%***12.6%*9.4%*6.0%*
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***1.4%***
Akron borough0.0%***0.0%***20.4%***6.8%***
Columbia borough0.0%***17.3%***20.0%***5.8%**
Denver township0.0%***33.3%***8.2%***7.3%***
East Petersburg borough0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***0.7%***
Elizabethtown borough0.0%***30.1%***2.6%***3.9%**
Ephrata borough0.0%***27.5%***1.9%***5.8%**
Lititz borough0.0%***0.0%***9.9%***3.6%***
Manheim boroughN/A***0.0%***100.0%***2.3%***
Marietta boroughN/A***0.0%***0.0%***7.1%**
Millersville borough0.0%***3.4%***25.7%***4.2%***
Mount Joy borough0.0%***0.0%***4.4%***4.0%***
Mountville borough0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***2.1%***
New Holland borough0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***2.8%***
Quarryville borough45.5%***0.0%***10.0%***5.1%***
Strasburg borough0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***1.4%***
Terre Hill boroughN/A***0.0%***0.0%***4.2%***
Lancaster County Townships
Bart townshipN/A***0.0%***0.0%***2.1%***
Brecknock township0.0%***N/A***0.0%***1.8%***
Caernarvon townshipN/A***N/A***48.0%***2.8%***
Clay township0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***2.8%***
Colerain townshipN/A***0.0%***N/A***1.2%***
Conestoga township0.0%***N/A***0.0%***3.7%***
Conoy townshipN/A***100.0%***0.0%***7.6%***
Drumore townshipN/A***0.0%***33.3%***1.5%***
Earl township0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***0.7%***
East Cocalico township0.0%***0.0%***5.2%***3.7%**
East Donegal township0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***2.7%***
East Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***0.0%***6.1%***
East Earl township0.0%***4.5%***0.0%***3.9%***
East Hempfield township0.0%***3.7%***2.4%***2.4%***
East Lampeter township16.9%***12.0%***8.2%***2.8%**
Eden townshipN/A***58.8%***0.0%***2.9%***
Elizabeth township0.0%***N/A***0.0%***2.0%***
Ephrata township0.0%***0.0%***8.4%***4.5%**
Fulton townshipN/A***N/A***0.0%***5.0%***
Lancaster township0.0%***4.1%***6.4%***3.0%***
Leacock township0.0%***0.0%***39.3%***4.1%***
Little Britain townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***1.7%***
Manheim township3.0%***0.0%***6.9%***3.1%*
Manor township6.8%***0.0%***4.9%***2.9%**
Martic townshipN/A***N/A***10.4%***6.3%***
Mount Joy township0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***4.6%***
Paradise townshipN/A***0.0%***5.6%***3.0%***
Penn township0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***1.7%***
Pequea township0.0%***0.0%***0.0%***3.1%***
Providence township0.0%***N/A***0.0%***6.4%***
Rapho townshipN/A***0.0%***9.3%***3.0%**
Sadsbury township0.0%***36.4%***0.0%***2.2%***
Salisbury township0.0%***0.0%***4.5%***2.0%***
Strasburg townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***1.6%***
Upper Leacock township0.0%***35.7%***21.4%***3.2%**
Warwick township15.1%***0.0%***3.3%***3.3%**
West Cocalico townshipN/A***N/A***0.0%***2.5%***
West Donegal township0.0%***100.0%***0.0%***3.9%***
West Earl township0.0%***0.0%***8.3%***3.3%***
West Hempfield township0.0%***0.0%***4.3%***3.5%***
West Lampeter township0.0%***0.0%***5.0%***2.8%***
Berks County4.7%***11.1%*14.1%5.5%
Chester County2.8%*11.0%5.8%*3.9%
Cumberland County3.3%***9.0%**6.2%**3.5%
Dauphin County5.6%**11.0%5.6%*3.2%
Lebanon County1.0%***5.1%***12.4%*4.7%
York County7.2%**14.1%11.5%*4.3%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




Number Unemployed by Race/Ethnicity, 2014-18
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Pennsylvania11,49881,43042,184259,553
Lancaster County174***1,068*2,1589,015
Lancaster City3***659*1,012*1,180*
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0***0***0***16***
Akron borough0***0***46***155***
Columbia borough0***108***105***236**
Denver township0***9***13***149***
East Petersburg borough0***0***0***19***
Elizabethtown borough0***55***5***221**
Ephrata borough0***19***9***403**
Lititz borough0***0***22***170***
Manheim borough0***0***82***55***
Marietta borough0***0***0***99**
Millersville borough0***12***83***171***
Mount Joy borough0***0***22***178***
Mountville borough0***0***0***26***
New Holland borough0***0***0***73***
Quarryville borough5***0***14***64***
Strasburg borough0***0***0***21***
Terre Hill borough0***0***0***28***
Lancaster County Townships
Bart township0***0***0***31***
Brecknock township0***0***0***78***
Caernarvon township0***0***12***60***
Clay township0***0***0***89***
Colerain township0***0***0***20***
Conestoga township0***0***0***83***
Conoy township0***8***0***134***
Drumore township0***0***9***20***
Earl township0***0***0***21***
East Cocalico township0***0***26***196**
East Donegal township0***0***0***114***
East Drumore township0***0***0***114***
East Earl township0***1***0***128***
East Hempfield township0***19***26***267***
East Lampeter township97***60***45***202**
Eden township0***10***0***27***
Elizabeth township0***0***0***46***
Ephrata township0***0***29***232**
Fulton township0***0***0***69***
Lancaster township0***35***148***182***
Leacock township0***0***44***102***
Little Britain township0***0***0***37***
Manheim township39***0***164***542*
Manor township16***0***34***304**
Martic township0***0***12***179***
Mount Joy township0***0***0***282***
Paradise township0***0***8***81***
Penn township0***0***0***73***
Pequea township0***0***0***88***
Providence township0***0***0***227***
Rapho township0***0***31***189**
Sadsbury township0***4***0***31***
Salisbury township0***0***9***104***
Strasburg township0***0***0***31***
Upper Leacock township0***45***77***134**
Warwick township14***0***12***322**
West Cocalico township0***0***0***93***
West Donegal township0***24***0***156***
West Earl township0***0***17***138***
West Hempfield township0***0***17***288***
West Lampeter township0***0***25***202***
Berks County137***1,174*5,44310,110
Chester County400*1,7981,107*9,610
Cumberland County195***420**262**4,094
Dauphin County353**2,757594*3,412
Lebanon County11***83***960*2,938
York County242**1,8021,587*9,099

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.




INDICATORS TREND
Prekindergarten Participation Increasing
Student Performance on Grade 3 English Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 3 Math Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 English Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math Not Applicable
Student Performance in Grade 11 English Not Applicable
Student Performance in Grade 11 Math Decreasing
Per-Student Spending Maintaining
Students Receiving Special Education Services Increasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions Maintaining
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Disengaged Youth Maintaining
Plans of High School Graduates Not Applicable
Enrollment in Local Colleges Decreasing
College Graduation Rates Decreasing
Brain Drain/Gain Increasing
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Average Charitable Giving Maintaining
Voter Registration Rate Not Applicable
Voter Participation Rate Decreasing
Age of Housing Stock Not Applicable
Violent Crime Rate Maintaining
Incarceration Rate Maintaining
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Population Density Increasing
Air Quality Increasing
Water Use Decreasing
Waterways Impaired by Pollution Not Applicable
Population by Age Not Applicable
Change in Population by Age and Gender Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People with Disabilities Increasing
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Change in Employment by Sector Not Applicable
Sector Share of Total Jobs Not Applicable
Workers by Occupation Not Applicable
Change in Labor Force Maintaining
People Entering/Leaving County/Region for Work Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 Increasing
Female to Male Earnings Ratio Maintaining
Employer Size Not Applicable
Change in Number of Businesses by Sector Increasing
Change in Total Agricultural Sales Increasing
Spending for Local Government Maintaining
Spending for School Districts Maintaining
Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Veterans Living in Poverty Decreasing
Working Poor Maintaining
Median Household Income by Household Type Not Applicable
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Living Wage Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance Increasing
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch Increasing
Median Home Value Maintaining
Occupied Housing Units Decreasing
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Rent Maintaining
Cost of Renting Increasing
Households Without Vehicles Maintaining
Means of Transportation to Work, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Health Status Maintaining
Prevalence of Mental Illness Maintaining
Adults Who are Overweight or Obese Not Applicable
Mortality Rates Decreasing
Fatal Drug Overdoses Increasing
Cancer Incidence Decreasing
Households With Internet Access Not Applicable
High-Tech Jobs Increasing
STEM Graduates Increasing
Science and Engineering Research and Development Maintaining
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable


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