Racial Equity
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity


Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22

What does this measure?

The number of owner-occupied units (not rented) as a percent of all occupied units (not vacant) for various racial and ethnic groups.

Why is this important?

Historically, members of some racial and ethnic groups have suffered discrimination in buying homes and accessing home mortgages. A home is a vital financial asset for a family and an investment in both the local neighborhood and surrounding community.

How does our county compare?

In 2018-22, homeownership rates in Lancaster County were highest among white residents, at 73%, followed by Asian residents at 61%, Hispanic residents at 44%, and African American residents at 36%. The racial/ethnic disparity follows a similar pattern to state and national rates, but is more pronounced in Lancaster, with ownership by African Americans and Hispanics about 7 and 6 percentage points, respectively, below national levels.

Since 2008-12, rates of homeownership have declined by 15 percentage points for Asians, while rates for African Americans and Hispanics have increased by 3 and 9 points, respectively.

In the City of Lancaster, homeownership levels are below county and state levels, with 41% of Hispanics and 54% of whites owning homes.

Among comparison counties, Lancaster and Chester have the highest homeownership rates among Hispanics, at 44% and 47%, respectively. Homeownership among African Americans in Lancaster County is lower than in Berks, Chester and York counties, on par with Dauphin, and above Cumberland.

Why do these disparities exist?

A variety of research has shown how disparities in homeownership are connected to racial inequities within systems beyond housing, including financial services, labor market and intergenerational wealth. Historic practices including redlining, exclusionary mortgage practices and restrictive covenants barring property from being owned by members of specific groups directly locked people out of homeownership. These had intergenerational effects when people of color were unable to benefit from wealth transfers of home equity as white homebuyers can. Since Black and Latino households generally have lower wages and wealth accumulation, they have less resources for down payments and higher debt to income ratios. With lower credit scores than other racial/ethnic groups, communities of color may be less likely to qualify for mortgages as underwriting standards increase. Many in the Black and Latino community may lack information about the home buying process and choose to stay renters. Discrimination during the home buying process also influences whether people of color buy a house. Researchers have found that during the search process, people of color were shown fewer houses and provided less information than whites.

Notes about the data

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanic or LatinoWhite
Lancaster County61%36%44%73%
Lancaster City41%**29%*41%54%
Lancaster County School Districts
School District of Lancaster54%*34%43%60%
Cocalico School District83%***45%***95%**85%
Columbia Borough School DistrictN/A***49%***15%***59%
Conestoga Valley School District55%***36%**36%**70%
Donegal School DistrictN/A***42%***42%***72%
Eastern Lancaster County School District32%***53%***64%***76%
Elizabethtown Area School District68%***18%***52%***69%
Ephrata Area School District71%***0%***18%***66%
Hempfield School District53%**31%***56%*82%
Lampeter-Strasburg School District22%***72%***24%***74%
Manheim Central School District100%***100%***89%***79%
Manheim Township School District73%*50%***56%*74%
Penn Manor School District77%**26%***56%**78%
Pequea Valley School DistrictN/A***29%***39%***72%
Solanco School District87%***33%***25%***77%
Warwick School District61%***62%***57%***76%
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0%***13%***0%***86%
Akron borough100%***N/A***29%***57%
Christiana boroughN/A***50%***0%***63%
Columbia boroughN/A***49%***15%***59%
Denver township100%***100%***100%***73%
East Petersburg borough100%***N/A***100%***85%
Elizabethtown borough0%***19%***25%***56%
Ephrata boroughN/A***0%***16%***57%
Lititz borough100%***100%***52%***70%
Manheim boroughN/A***N/A***100%***69%
Marietta boroughN/A***37%***0%***68%
Millersville borough0%***0%***44%***58%*
Mount Joy boroughN/A***35%***39%***63%
Mountville boroughN/A***100%***100%***84%*
New Holland borough18%***72%***59%***75%
Quarryville borough100%***0%***37%***62%
Strasburg boroughN/A***N/A***0%***74%
Terre Hill boroughN/A***N/A***75%***60%*
Lancaster County Townships
Bart township0%***N/A***100%***68%
Brecknock townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***79%
Caernarvon township100%***N/A***N/A***82%
Clay townshipN/A***N/A***45%***78%
Colerain townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***78%
Conestoga township100%***N/A***0%***91%
Conoy townshipN/A***N/A***100%***91%
Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***100%***72%
Earl townshipN/A***100%***100%***68%
East Cocalico township100%***0%***100%***85%
East Donegal townshipN/A***48%***50%***82%
East Drumore township100%***0%***0%***69%
East Earl township100%***0%***N/A***80%
East Hempfield township43%**21%***46%***77%
East Lampeter township49%***42%**37%***69%
Eden township100%***N/A***N/A***85%
Elizabeth townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***91%
Ephrata township55%***0%***4%***74%
Fulton townshipN/A***0%***0%***82%*
Lancaster township76%**55%**52%*74%
Leacock townshipN/A***0%***N/A***67%
Little Britain townshipN/A***100%***0%***85%
Manheim township73%*50%***56%*74%
Manor township100%***37%***57%**78%
Martic township0%***N/A***0%***95%
Mount Joy township100%***44%***67%***77%
Paradise townshipN/A***11%***39%***68%
Penn township100%***100%***100%***77%
Pequea township100%***100%***100%***71%
Providence townshipN/A***100%***57%***83%
Rapho township100%***N/A***43%***84%
Sadsbury townshipN/A***100%***49%***72%
Salisbury townshipN/A***58%***40%***76%
Strasburg townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***91%
Upper Leacock township23%***0%***7%***65%
Warwick township41%***54%***60%***77%
West Cocalico townshipN/A***100%***100%***93%
West Donegal townshipN/A***N/A***100%***67%
West Earl township100%***100%***81%***77%
West Hempfield township78%***30%***50%***88%
West Lampeter township22%***70%***26%***70%
Berks County66%44%42%77%
Chester County67%43%47%78%
Cumberland County55%26%*41%73%
Dauphin County63%36%32%72%
Lebanon County84%*26%**42%75%
York County70%43%42%79%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

Number of Homeowners by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanic or LatinoWhite
Lancaster County2,5472,5328,230134,132
Lancaster City236**851*2,9776,855
Lancaster County School Districts
School District of Lancaster511*1,2163,81610,449
Cocalico School District34***45***242**7,196
Columbia Borough School District0***128***126***2,165
Conestoga Valley School District238***286**483**7,099
Donegal School District0***107***145***5,859
Eastern Lancaster County School District53***84***108***8,157
Elizabethtown Area School District65***41***248***8,172
Ephrata Area School District57***0***163***8,648
Hempfield School District330**156***869*15,094
Lampeter-Strasburg School District30***134***65***6,762
Manheim Central School District91***9***100***8,544
Manheim Township School District649*131***835*11,479
Penn Manor School District357**81***699**11,872
Pequea Valley School District0***39***84***4,487
Solanco School District27***21***51***8,007
Warwick School District105***47***172***9,243
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0***6***0***653
Akron borough29***0***37***895
Christiana borough0***2***0***198
Columbia borough0***128***126***2,165
Denver township18***14***103***985
East Petersburg borough20***0***202***1,425
Elizabethtown borough0***41***59***2,437
Ephrata borough0***0***85***3,067
Lititz borough60***13***58***2,572
Manheim borough0***0***49***1,256
Marietta borough0***19***0***695
Millersville borough0***0***85***1,175*
Mount Joy borough0***43***92***1,987
Mountville borough0***45***56***1,056*
New Holland borough24***66***84***1,304
Quarryville borough12***0***20***589
Strasburg borough0***0***0***927
Terre Hill borough0***0***6***228*
Lancaster County Townships
Bart township0***0***3***573
Brecknock township0***0***0***1,990
Caernarvon township13***0***0***1,126
Clay township0***0***34***1,889
Colerain township0***0***0***894
Conestoga township34***0***0***1,414
Conoy township0***0***73***1,201
Drumore township0***0***11***588
Earl township0***18***18***1,645
East Cocalico township16***0***100***3,265
East Donegal township0***31***34***2,461
East Drumore township14***0***0***904
East Earl township16***0***0***1,864
East Hempfield township194**69***393***7,517
East Lampeter township82***277**374***3,392
Eden township1***0***0***540
Elizabeth township0***0***0***1,286
Ephrata township28***0***7***2,797
Fulton township0***0***0***702*
Lancaster township275**377**824*3,785
Leacock township0***0***0***985
Little Britain township0***10***0***1,188
Manheim township649*131***850*11,494
Manor township281***57***528**6,097
Martic township0***0***0***1,669
Mount Joy township65***14***101***2,968
Paradise township0***6***51***1,115
Penn township50***9***42***3,257
Pequea township42***24***86***1,511
Providence township0***11***17***2,029
Rapho township41***0***9***4,031
Sadsbury township0***5***24***701
Salisbury township0***33***33***2,387
Strasburg township0***0***0***1,241
Upper Leacock township33***0***14***1,634
Warwick township45***34***114***5,385
West Cocalico township0***25***39***2,311
West Donegal township0***0***34***2,282
West Earl township123***9***95***2,073
West Hempfield township116***42***218***5,096
West Lampeter township30***122***65***4,394
Berks County1,3552,82012,09499,902
Chester County7,4364,2975,159132,593
Cumberland County2,419751*1,35967,877
Dauphin County2,9697,1103,04360,989
Lebanon County509*297**2,40736,510
York County1,4883,9754,566124,790

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

Prekindergarten Participation
Student Performance on Grade 3 English
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math
High School Cohort Graduation Rate
Per-Student Spending
Students Receiving Special Education Services
Rate of Foster Care Admissions
Disengaged Youth
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Plans of High School Graduates
Enrollment in Local Colleges
College Graduation Rates
Brain Drain/Gain
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Average Charitable Giving
Voter Registration Rate
Voter Participation Rate
Age of Housing Stock
Violent Crime Rate
Incarceration Rate
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population Density
Air Quality
Water Use
Waterways Impaired by Pollution
Change in Population
Change in Population by Age and Gender
Population by Age
Population by Race/Ethnicity
People with Disabilities
Foreign-Born Population
Language Diversity
Change in Total Jobs
Change in Employment by Sector
Sector Share of Total Jobs
Workers by Occupation
Change in Labor Force
People Entering/Leaving County/Region for Work
Average Salary by Sector
Change in Average Salary Since 2000
Female to Male Earnings Ratio
Employer Size
Change in Number of Businesses by Sector
Change in Total Agricultural Sales
Spending for Local Government
Spending for School Districts
Children Living in Poverty
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Veterans Living in Poverty
Working Poor
Median Household Income by Household Type
Median Household Income
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Living Wage
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch
Median Home Value
Occupied Housing Units
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Median Rent
Cost of Renting
Households Without Vehicles
Means of Transportation to Work, by Race/Ethnicity
People Without Health Insurance
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity
Health Status
Prevalence of Mental Illness
Adults Who are Overweight or Obese
Mortality Rates
Mortality Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Fatal Drug Overdoses
Cancer Incidence
Households With Internet Access
High-Tech Jobs
STEM Graduates
Science and Engineering Research and Development
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population by Race/Ethnicity
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity